Splenomegaly can be diagnosed by chance or as part of a symptomatic complex. It is essential to interprete splenomegaly in the context of other alterations, especially of blood counts, lymph nodes and liver. Isolated biopsy of the spleen or splenectomy is rarely recommended for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Splenomegaly is at the best reversible by successful treatment of the underlying disease; at least the size of the spleen may be controlled. In cases of non-malignant underlying diseases there can be an indication for splenectomy, and in certain cases an enlarged spleen may be irradiated to achieve symptom control.
Keywords: splenomegaly, infections, autoimmune diseases, lymphomas, leukemias, storage disorders, splenectomy, splenic irradiation